Animal Breeding: Objective and Methods of Animal Breeding
Animal breeding is when animals produce improved breeds of domesticated animals by improving their genotypes and physiology through selective mating by descent, similar in most characters like general appearance, features, size and configuration.
Objectives of Animal Breeding
- Improved growth rate
- Increased production of milk, meat, egg, wool
- Superior quality of milk, meat, eggs, wool
- Improved resistance to various diseases
- Increased productive life
- Increased or, at least, acceptable reproduction rate
Methods of Animal Breeding
Breeding that occurs between animals of the same breed for 4-6 generations is called inbreeding. The progeny obtained from such mating are evaluated and superior males and females are identified for further mating.
Thus inbreeding is necessary if we want to develop a pure line in any animal. Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection. It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less desirable genes.
Out breeding is the breeding between unrelated animals which may be between individuals of the same breed or between different breeds or different species.
- Out Crossing:- Outcrossing is the best breeding method for animals that are below average in productivity in milk production, growth rate in beef cattle. Outcrossing is a form of mating animals within the same breed but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree. The offspring of such a cross is called as an outcross.
- Cross Breeding:- In cross-breeding superior males of one breed are mated with superior females of another breed. Many new animal breeds have been developed by this strategy. It gives better breeds.
- Hybrid:- In this approach, male and female animals of two different species are mated. The progeny obtained from such a mating are usually different from both the parental species.
Do you know about any other breeding methods ? Have you practiced any of the breeding methods listed here on your farm animals ? Tell us below in the comment section.
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If you made it to the end of this article, don’t forget to check out our other post on “Intensive Farming:- Advantages & Disadvantages” here.